My Publications

The list of my publications (or part of it) can be found here, on the website of my institutions, on Google Scholar, or on ORCID.

(If you would like a copy of a publication listed here below, do not hesitate to ask me by e-mail! – Please, avoid asking through ResearchGate! I do not answer through that media)

Peer-reviewed publications


      • Walwer D., Wauthier C., Barrière J., Smittarello D., Smets B., d’Oreye N., 2023. Modeling the intermittent lava lake drops occurring between 2015 and 2021 at Nyiragongo volcano. Geophysical Research Letters, 50, e2022GL102365. doi: 10.1029/2022GL102365. [Available here]
      • Subira J., Barrière J., Caudron C., Hubert-Ferrari A., Oth A., Smets B., d’Oreye N., Kervyn F., 2023. Detecting sources of shallow tremor at neighboring volcanoes in the Virunga Volcanic Province using seismic amplitude ratio analysis (SARA). Bulletin of Volcanology 85, 27. doi: 10.1007/s00445-023-01640-5 [Link]
      • Maki Mateso J.-C., Bielders C. L., Monsieurs E., Depicker A., Smets B., Tambala T., Bagalwa Mateso L., Dewitte O., 2023. Characteristics and causes of natural and human-induced landslides in a tropical mountainous region: the rift flank west of Lake Kivu (Democratic Republic of the Congo). Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 23(2), 643-666. doi: 10.5194/nhess-23-643-2023. [Available here]
      • Molendijk S., Namur O., Mason P.R.D., Dubacq B., Smets B., Neave D.A., Charlier B., 2023. Trace element partitioning in silica-undersaturated alkaline magmatic systems. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 346, 29-53. doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2023.01.025. [Link]


      • Dille A., Dewitte O., Handwerger A. L., d’Oreye N., Derauw D., Ganza Bamulezi G., Ilombe Mawe G., Michellier C., Moeyersons J., Monsieurs E., Mugaruka Bibentyo T., Samsonov S., Smets B., Kervyn M., Kervyn F., 2022. Acceleration of a large deep-seated tropical landslide due to urbanization feedbacks. Nature Geoscience, 15(12), 1048-1055. doi: [Link]
      • Smittarello D., Smets, B., Barrière J., Michellier C., Oth A., Shreve T., Grandin R., Theys N., Brenot H., Cayol V., Allard P., Caudron C., Chevrel O., Darchambeau F., de Buyl P., Delhaye L., Derauw D., Ganci G., Geirsson H., Kamate Kaleghetso E., Kambale Makundi J., Kambale Nguomoja I., Kasereka Mahinda C., Kervyn M., Kimanuka Ruriho C., Le Mével H., Molendijk S., Namur O., Poppe S., Schmid M., Subira J., Wauthier C., Yalire M.M., d’Oreye N., Kervyn F. Syavulisembo Muhindo A.,2022. Precursor-free eruption triggered by edifice rupture at Nyiragongo volcano. Nature, 609(7925), 83-88. doi: 10.1038/s41586-022-05047-8. [Available here]
      • Barrière J., d’Oreye N., Smets B., Oth A., Delhaye L., Subira J., Mashagiro N., Derauw D., Smittarello D., Muhindo Syavulisembo A., Kervyn F., 2022. Intra‐crater eruption dynamics at Nyiragongo (DR Congo), 2002‐2021. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth 127 (4), e2021JB023858. doi: 10.1109/IGARSS47720.2021.9553796. [Link]


      • Delhaye L., Smets B., 2021. Time-Series in Structure-from-Motion Photogrammetry: Testing Co-Registration Approaches for Topographic Change Analysis. IGARSS 2021 – 2021 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 4648-4651. doi: 10.1109/IGARSS47720.2021.9553796. [Link]
      • Theys N., Brenot H., De Smedt I., Lerot C., Hedelt P., Loyola D., Vlietinck J., Yu H., Smets B., Kervyn F., Barrière J., Oth A., D’Oreye N., Van Roozendael M., 2021. Global Monitoring of Volcanic SO2 Degassing Using Sentinel-5 Precursor TROPOMI. IGARSS 2021 – 2021 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 1911-1914. doi: 10.1109/IGARSS47720.2021.9554664. [Link]
      • Depicker A., Jacobs L., Mboga N., Smets B., Van Rompaey A., Lennert M., Wolff E., Kervyn F., Michellier C., Dewitte O., Govers G., 2021. Historical dynamics of landslide risk from population and forest-cover changes in the Kivu Rift. Nature Sustainability 4, 965-974. [Link]
      • Mboga N., D’Aronco S., Grippa T., Pelletier C., Georganos S., Vanhuysse S., Wolff E., Smets B., Dewitte O., Lennert M., Wegner J.D., 2021. Domain Adaptation for Semantic Segmentation of Historical Panchromatic Orthomosaics in Central Africa. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information 10(8): 523. [Available here]


      • Mboga N., Grippa T., Georganos S., Vanhuysse S., Smets B., Dewitte O., Wolff E., Lennert M., 2020. Fully convolutional networks for land cover classification from historical panchromatic aerial photographs. ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing 167, 385-395. doi: [Link]
      • James M. R., Carr B., D’Arcy F., Diefenbach A., Dietterich H., Fornaciai A., Lev E., Liu E., Pieri D., Rodgers M., Smets B., Terada A., von Aulock F., Walter T., Wood K., Zorn E., 2020. Volcanological applications of unoccupied aircraft systems (UAS): Developments, strategies, and future challenges. Volcanica 3(1), 67-114. doi: 10.30909/vol.03.01.67114 [Available here]
      • Morrison A. A., Whittington A., Smets B., Kervyn M., Sehlke A., 2020. The Rheology of Crystallizing basaltic lavas from Nyiragongo and Nyamuragira volcanoes, DRC. Volcanica 3 (1), 1-28. doi: 10.30909/vol.03.01.0128 [Available here]


      • Barrière J., d’Oreye N., Oth A., Mashagiro N., Subira J., Kervyn F., Smets B. 2019. Seismicity and outgassing dynamics of Nyiragongo volcano. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 528, 115821. doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2019.115821 [Link]
      • Dille A., Kervyn F., Bibentyo T.M., Delvaux D., Ganza G.B., Mawe G.I., Buzera C.K., Nakito E.S., Moeyersons J., Monsieurs E., Nzolang C., Smets B., Kervyn M., Dewitte O. 2019. Causes and triggers of deep-seated hillslope instability in the tropics–Insights from a 60-year record of Ikoma landslide (DR Congo). Geomorphology 345, 106835. doi: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2019.106835/ [Link]
      • Dille A.,  Kervyn F.,  Monsieurs E.,  Smets B.,  d’Oreye N.,  Kervyn M., Dewitte O. 2019. Dynamics of slow-moving deep-seated landslides in the tropics: insights from combined analyses of long InSAR time series and ground-based measurements. In: M. Rutzinger & K. Heinrich (eds), Close Range Sensing Techniques in Alpine Terrain. Proceedings of the Innsbruck Summer School of Alpine Research 2019. Series ‘Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften’. Wien : Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. (PR) ISBN: 978-3-7001-8565-9.


      • Smets B., d’Oreye N., Michellier C., Kervyn F. 2018. Study and Monitoring of the Virunga Volcanoes: Long-Term Involvement of Belgium and Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg. Bulletin des Séances de l’Académie Royale des Sciences d’Outre-Mer (In Press). [Available here]
      • Smets B., Michellier C., Syavulisembo, A.M., Muganga G., d’Oreye N., Kervyn F. 2018. Very High-Resolution Imaging of the City of Goma (North Kivu, D.R. Congo) Using SfM-MVS Photogrammetry. IGARSS 2018 – 2018 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 3370-3373. doi: 10.1109/IGARSS.2018.8517412 [Link]
      • Wauthier C., Smets B., Hooper A., Kervyn F., d’Oreye N. 2018. Identification of subsiding areas undergoing significant magmatic carbon dioxide degassing, along the northern shore of Lake Kivu, East African Rift. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 363, 40-49. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2018.08.018 [Link]
      • Barrière J., d’Oreye N., Oth A., Geirsson H., Mashagiro N., Johnson J., Smets B., Samsonov S., Kervyn F. 2018. Single-station seismo-acoustic monitoring of Nyiragongo’s lava lake activity (DR Congo). Frontiers in Earth Sciences 6, 82. doi: 10.3389/feart.2018.00082 [Available here]


      • Geirsson H., d’Oreye N., Mashagiro N., Syauswa M., Celli G., Kadufu B., Smets B., Kervyn F. 2017. Volcano-tectonic deformation in the Kivu Region, Central Africa: Results from six years of continuous GNSS observations of the Kivu Geodetic Network (KivuGNet). Journal of African Earth Sciences 134, 809-823. doi:10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2016.12.013 [Link]
      • Barette F., Poppe S., Smets B., Benbakkar M., Kervyn M. 2017. Spatial variation of volcanic rock geochemistry in the Virunga Volcanic Province: Statistical analysis of an integrated database. Journal of African Earth Sciences 134, 888-903. doi:10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2016.09.018 [Link]
      • Smets B., d’Oreye N., Kervyn M., Kervyn F. 2017. Gas piston activity of the Nyiragongo lava lake: First insights from a Stereographic Time-Lapse Camera system. Journal of African Earth Sciences 134, 874-887. doi:10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2016.04.010 [Link]


      • Poppe S., Smets B., Fontijn K., Rukeza M.B., Migabo A., Milungu A.K., Namogo D.B., Kervyn F., Kervyn M. 2016. Phreatomagmatic eruptions alongside the densely populated Lake Kivu northern shoreline (DRC and Rwanda): physical volcanology, timing and hazard implications. Bulletin of Volcanology 78, 82. doi:10.1007/s00445-016-1074-8 [Link]
      • Smets B., Delvaux D., Ross K.A., Poppe S., Kervyn M., d’Oreye N., Kervyn F. 2016. The role of inherited crustal structures and magmatism in the development of rift segments: Insights from the Kivu basin, western branch of the East African Rift. Tectonophysics 683, 62–76. doi:10.1016/j.tecto.2016.06.022 [Link]


      • Wauthier C., Smets B., Keir D. 2015. Diking-induced moderate-magnitude earthquakes on a youthful rift border fault: The 2002 Nyiragongo-Kalehe sequence, D.R. Congo. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 16(12), 4280–4291. doi: 10.1002/2015GC006110 [Available here]
      • Wauthier C., Cayol V., Smets B., d’Oreye N., Kervyn F. 2015. Magma Pathways and Their Interactions Inferred from InSAR and Stress Modeling at Nyamulagira Volcano, D.R. Congo. Remote Sensing 7(11), 15179–15202. doi:10.3390/rs71115179 [Available here]
      • Syavulisembo A. M., Havenith H.-B., Smets B., d’Oreye N., Martì J. 2015. Preliminary assessment for the use of VORIS as a tool for rapid lava flow simulation at Goma Volcano Observatory, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Natural Hazards & Earth System Sciences 15, 2391–2400. doi:10.5194/nhess-15-2391-2015 [Available here]
      • Smets B., Kervyn M., d’Oreye N., Kervyn F. 2015. Spatio-temporal dynamics of eruptions in a youthful extensional setting: Insights from Nyamulagira Volcano (D.R. Congo), in the western branch of the East African Rift. Earth-Science Reviews 150, 305–328. doi:10.1016/j.earscirev.2015.08.008 [Link]
      • De Rauw D., Kervyn F., d’Oreye N., Smets B., Albino F., Barbier C. 2015. Split-Band Interferometric SAR processing using TanDEM-X data. In Proceedings of FRINGE 2015, Advances in the Science and Applications of SAR Interferometry and Sentinel-1 InSAR Workshop, ESA SP-731, 7 pp. [Available here]
      • Albino F., Smets B., d’Oreye N., Kervyn F. 2015. High-resolution TanDEM-X DEM : an accurate method to estimate lava flow volumes at Nyamulagira volcano (D.R. Congo). Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth 120 (6): 4189-4207 – DOI: 10.1002/2015JB011988 [Link]


      • Smets B., d’Oreye N., Kervyn F. 2014. Toward Another Lava Lake in the Virunga Volcanic Field? EOS Transactions American Geophysical Union 95 (42), 377-378 – DOI: 10.1002/2014EO420001 (Peer-Reviewed Press Article) [Available here]
      • Ross K.A., Smets B., De Batist M., Hilbe M., Schmid M., Anselmetti F.S. 2014. Lake-level rise in the late Pleistocene and active subaquatic volcanism since the Holocene in Lake Kivu; East African Rift. Geomorphology 221, 274-285 – DOI: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2014.05.010 [Link]
      • Smets B., d’Oreye N., Kervyn F., Kervyn M., Albino F., Arellano S.R., Bagalwa M., Balagizi C., Carn S.A., Darrah T.H., Fernández J., Galle B., González P.J., Head E., Karume K., Kavotha D., Lukaya F., Mashagiro N., Mavonga G., Norman P., Osodundu E., Pallero J.L.G., Prieto J.F., Samsonov S., Syauswa M., Tedesco D., Tiampo K., Wauthier C., Yalire M.M. 2014. Detailed multidisciplinary monitoring reveals pre- and co-eruptive signals at Nyamulagira volcano (North Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo). Bulletin of Volcanology 76 (1): 787, 35p. – DOI: 10.1007/s00445-013-0787-1 [Link]


      • Samsonov S., d’Oreye N., Smets B. 2013. Natural and anthropogenic ground deformation monitored using high spatio-temporal resolution MSBAS time series method. MultiTemp 2013: 7th International Workshop on the Analysis of Multi-temporal Remote Sensing Images 1–3. doi:10.1109/Multi-Temp.2013.6866021 [Link]
      • Wauthier C., Cayol V., Poland M., Kervyn F., d’Oreye N., Hooper A., Samsonov S., Tiampo K., Smets B. 2013. Nyamulagira’s magma plumbing system revealed by 15 years of InSAR. Geological Society of London Special Publications 380: Remote Sensing of Volcanoes and Volcanic Processes: Integrating Observation and Modelling, 39-65. – DOI: 10.1144/SP380.9 [Available here]
      • Samsonov S., d’Oreye N., Smets B. 2013. Ground deformation associated with post-mining activity at the French-German border revealed by novel InSAR time series method. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation 23, 142-154. – DOI: 10.1016/j.jag.2012.12.008 [Available here]


      • Smets B., Wauthier C., d’Oreye N., 2010. A new map of the lava flow field of Nyamulagira (D.R.Congo) from satellite imagery. Journal of African Earth Sciences 58 (5), AVCoR Special Issue, 778-786. – DOI: 10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2010.07.005 [Available here]
      • Smets B., Tedesco D., Kervyn F., Kies A., Vaselli O., Yalire M.M. 2010. Dry gas vents (“mazuku”) in Goma region (North-Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo): formation and risk assessment. Journal of African Earth Sciences 58 (5), AVCoR Special Issue, 787-798. – DOI: 10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2010.04.008 [Link]
      • van Overbeke A.-C., Bagalwa M., Durieux J., Kavotha D., Kies A., Kervyn F., Lukaya F., Mitangala P., d’Oreye N., Osodundu E., Smets B., Tedesco D., Wauthier C., Yalire M. 2010. Monitoring of volcanic activity in the Goma region (N-Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo) and mitigation of related risks by both spaceborne and ground-based techniques: experience of the GORISK project. Proceed. ECGS Cahiers bleus – 26th ECGS Workshop on Active Volcanism & Continental Rifting, with special focus on the Virunga (North Kivu, DR of Congo), Volume 29, 89-96. [Available here]
      • Calais E., d’Oreye N., Albaric J., Deschamps A., Delvaux D., Deverchere J., Ebinger C., Ferdinand R.W., Kervyn F., Macheyeki A.S., Oyen A., Perrot J., Saria E., Smets B., Stamps S., Wauthier C. 2008, Strain accommodation by slow slip and dyking in a youthful continental rift, East Africa, Nature, Vol. 456, p.783-787. – DOI: 10.1038/nature07478 [Link]


      • Smets B., 2011. Spatiocarte de la ville de Goma, Nord Kivu, République Démocratique du Congo. Scale 1/10.000, Royal Museum for Central Africa, ISBN: 978-9-0747-5298-5.

Conference abstracts

More than 70 abstracts accepted for national and international scientific conferences, since 2007.

Selection of 10 abstracts:

      • Smets B., Syavulisembo A.M., Michellier C., d’Oreye N., Kervyn F. Drone-based acquisition and SfM-MVS Photogrammetry as revolutions to study volcanoes and map the related hazards in complex tropical environment. 20th EGU General Assembly, Abstract 3630, Vienna, Austria, April 8-13, 2018
      • Smets B., d’Oreye N., Geirsson H., Kervyn M., Kervyn F. Insights into the dynamics of the Nyiragongo lava lake level. 18th EGU General Assembly, Abstract 8350, Vienna, Austria, April 17-22, 2016
      • Smets B., d’Oreye N., Samsonov S., Nobile A., Geirsson H., Kervyn F. Lava lake level drop and related ground subsidence in the Nyiragongo main crater (D.R.Congo) measured by close-range photogrammetry and InSAR time-series. AGU Fall Meeting 2015, San Francisco, United States of America, December 14-18, 2015
      • Smets B., Kervyn M., d’Oreye N., Kervyn F. Spatial and Temporal Evolution of Eruptive Activity in a Youthful Extensional Setting: the Case of the Nyamulagira Volcanic Field, Western Branch of the East African Rift. AGU Fall Meeting 2014, San Francisco, United States of America, December 15-19, 2014
      • Smets B., d’Oreye N., Kervyn F. The Nyiragongo hazard : is the literature misleading? Active Volcanism and Continental Rifting with special focus on the Kivu rift zone (AVCoR 2013), Gisenyi, Rwanda, November 12-14 2013
      • Smets B., d’Oreye N., Kervyn F., Kervyn M., Ross K.A. Are magmatism and volcanism responsible for the structures and morphology of the Kivu rift basin? Active Volcanism and Continental Rifting with special focus on the Kivu rift zone (AVCoR 2013), Gisenyi, Rwanda, November 12-14 2013
      • Smets B., Kasereka M., Kies A., Tedesco D., Yalire M. The « mazuku hazard » in the Goma region, D.R. Congo. Active Volcanism and Continental Rifting with special focus on the Kivu rift zone (AVCoR 2013), Gisenyi, Rwanda, November 12-14 2013
      • Smets B., d’Oreye N., Kervyn F. Development of a stereographic time-lapse camera system to study and monitor the lava lake activity at Nyiragongo volcano (North-Kivu, D.R. Congo). Active Volcanism and Continental Rifting with special focus on the Kivu rift zone (AVCoR 2013), Gisenyi, Rwanda, November 12-14 2013
      • Smets B., d’Oreye N., Kervyn F. The importance of multidisciplinary volcano monitoring: pre- and co-eruptive activity during the Nyamulagira 2010 eruption (D.R. Congo). 97th Journées Luxembourgeoises de Géodynamique, Luxembourg, October 2-4 2013
      • Smets B., Albino F., d’Oreye N., Kervyn F., Poppe S., Kervyn M. The crucial role of digital elevation modeling to study Nyiragongo and Nyamulagira volcanoes (North Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo). IAVCEI General Assembly 2013, Kagoshima, Japan, July 19-24 2013

Non peer-reviewed publications

      • Smets B., 2012. “Dans la gueule d’un volcan actif”, Carnet de voyage d’une aventure scientifique dans le cratère du Nyiragongo. Ardennes & Alpes, 173, 14-17.
      • Smets B., 2012. Le cratère principal du Nyiragongo : Historique de son exploration et itinéraire de descente. Ardennes & Alpes, 173, 18-22.
      • Smets B., Kervyn F., d’Oreye N., van Overbeke A.-C., 2010. GORISK. Surveiller les volcans des Virunga depuis l’espace … Science Connection 32 (December 2010).